Input Data

SOLAR FORCING IN THE HINDCAST SIMULATIONS (REF-C1, REF-C3, 1960-2010)

Daily spectrally resolved solar irradiance data from the NRLSSI model (Lean et al., 2005) which have been used in previous CCMVal and CMIP5 experiments are recommended. In addition the inclusion of atmospheric ionization by solar protons (and related HOx and NOx productions) are strongly encouraged by using the GOES...Read more

CCMVal recommendations

Variations in the total solar irradiance (TSI), the so-called "solar constant", over a solar cycle are small (0.08%, e.g., Fröhlich, 2000). However, variations in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum, which is important for ozone production and middle atmosphere heating, range from 8% at 200nm to about 5% from 220nm to 260nm, 0.5% around 300nm, and 0....Read more

Recommendations for CMIP5 solar forcing data

This section provides links solar irradiance data that should be used in CMIP5 simulations. A description of how the data were reconstructed by Judith Lean can be found here, and some guidelines for their use are also...Read more

Solar Proton Fluxes

To study the impact of solar proton events (SPEs), solar proton flux data from 1963 to 2016 and a methdology to derive HOx and NOx production rates are provided by Charles Jackman. A description of how the data set was produced as well as a description about the structure of the data can be found...Read more